After attending Linuxfest Northwest 2019 where both Allan Jude and Jim Salter gave excellent talks about ZFS, I finally gave in and decided to implement ZFS on my server. I wonder if being a ZFS junkie is a TechSnap host pre-requisite? Here's a short article giving a ZFS 101 intro and list of commands in one place.
ZFS on Linux
As of today the only distro that ships ZFS is Ubuntu. There is a full explanation of the drama surrounding the licensing involved if you're interested here.
Ubuntu simply requires a couple of user space tools be installed where all other major Linux distros require the use of DKMS kernel modules. DKMS is an OK-ish solution but requires the kernel module be recompiled whenever a kernel update is shipped. No thanks!
Installation of the user space tools is simple. A full wiki post from Canonical is available here. But the TL;DR is this:
apt install zfsutils-linux
For a great explanation of why you should be using mirrors see Jim's blog.
Creating a mirrored pair is achieved thus:
zpool create tank mirror -m /mnt/tank -o ashift=12 /dev/disk/by-id/ata-WDC_WD100EMAZ-00WJTA0_serial /dev/disk/by-id/ata-WDC_WD100EMAZ-00WJTA0_serial
Once you have created your zpool, do not put any data in the root of it. Instead, use datasets. This makes replication much easier later on and makes logical separation of your data much more easily managed.
# list zpools $ zpool list NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT tank 9.06T 2.51T 6.55T - 1% 27% 1.00x ONLINE - # create datasets $ zfs create tank/appdata # takes format of pool/dataset/name # list datasets $ zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT tank 2.51T 6.27T 104K /mnt/tank tank/appdata 8.99G 6.27T 5.87G /mnt/tank/appdata tank/appdata/influxdb 96K 6.27T 96K /mnt/tank/appdata/influxdb tank/backups 293G 6.27T 293G /mnt/tank/backups # create snapshot $ zfs snapshot pool/dataset@snapshotname # or for a recursive (all dirs under this dataset) snapshot $ zfs snapshot -r pool/dataset@snapshotname # list snapshots $ zfs list -t snapshot NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT tank/appdata@20190506-2300 400M - 5.67G - tank/appdata@080519-1430 111M - 5.88G - tank/fuse@20190502-0900 112K - 144K - tank/fuse/audiobooks@20190502-0900 317M - 83.6G - # create mountpoint if you didn't already $ zfs create -o mountpoint=/mnt/point tank/dataset/to/mount
Jim Salter's blog at jrs-s.net has a number of excellent posts about ZFS. Make sure you set ashift correctly. Disks often lie about their sector size and if you ignore this setting it can drastically degrade performance. Most large drives have 4k sectors so an
ashift=12 is usually fine. Some Samsung SSD have 8k sectors where
ashift=13 would be required.
Ashift is per-vdev and immutable once set. It cannot be set at any level below the vdev. — Jim Salter (@jrssnet) May 1, 2019
If you're using systems which rely on SELinux you'll be well served enabling
xattr=sa for the extended attributes it requires.
It boils down to a few basic parameters as confirmed by Allan Jude in this tweet.
Compress on, atime off, ashift 12. All looks good — Allan Jude (@allanjude) May 1, 2019
I also highly recommend taking a look through some of Jim's presentations here.
edit: Note that Ubuntu automatically schedules scrubs for you. Jim pointed this out to me on Twitter!
another note: modern versions of Ubuntu schedule a monthly scrub for you automatically. The one you added manually is a dupe. Check for yourself: pic.twitter.com/VzHjV0lxH7 — Jim Salter (@jrssnet) May 14, 2019
ZFS requires that you run regular scrubs. Once a month is generally considered fine.
# start a scrub $ zfs scrub pool/ # see status of a scrub $ zpool status pool: tank state: ONLINE scan: scrub in progress since Thu May 9 21:24:30 2019 14.4G scanned out of 2.51T at 104M/s, 6h58m to go 0B repaired, 0.56% done config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM tank ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 ata-WDC_WD100EMAZ-00WJTA0_SERIAL1 ONLINE 0 0 0 ata-WDC_WD100EMAZ-00WJTA0_SERIAL2 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors
You should probably set this maintenance to run automatically. Add this to your crontab with
# zpool scrub every month 0 2 1 * * /sbin/zpool scrub files && curl -fsS --retry 3 https://hc-ping.com/some-generated-uuid > /dev/null 0 13 1 * * /sbin/zpool status
Good luck and remember, your drives are plotting against you.